Ilustrasi mengenai caption pada video.

Caption on Video for Deaf

The use of video as a medium for learning has multiple roles in these day an age. With one click on a specific link, students can access videos directly from wherever they are. Unfortunately, often the video used is not accompanied by caption, both closed or open caption.

Ironically this is similar to the way some television stations are not adhering to Indonesian 2012 law number 32 on broadcasting and 2016 law number 8 about disability in relation to the right to obtain information for everyone. “Everyone” is defined as the infinite segments of viewers who watch, including those who are hearing impaired (deaf), or have other sensory disabilities with varying levels. If one covers audiences in all segments, then providing caption on each video is what must be done.

In the education sector, the use of video is directly associated with learning material. Since the Directorate General of High Education from the Ministry of Research, Technology and High Education stated that the university campus is inclusive for everyone, the existence of video as a medium of learning to distribute information is also an obligation that universities must follow through. Although in the 2016 Law number 8 it is not stated specifically that a hearing impaired student (deaf) should be provided with a sign language translator in schools or on campuses, this is an intrinsic point covered by the law.

When a sign language translator is not available in the video, then the caption in the text must explain the contents of the audio. In fact, sound effects that is not speech but related contextually to what is visually displayed must also be defined in the caption, such as the sound of wind on a video containing learning materials about meteorology and geophysics. In essence, whatever is still in the form of sound can be captioned in the video.

Closed and Open Caption

Caption is a text that appears on the screen that explains the contents of the video and also describes the voice and sound effect to provide in written form the message. Caption can also be an explanation about the identity of the speaker and an explanation of the voice that has relevance with the contents of the video. Caption synchronizes with the visual performance in the video, so that viewers can listen and read the caption at once. Thus, those with sensory disability both visually or hearing impaired (blindness and deafness) can have equal access to informations on the video.

There are two kinds of caption, which is closed caption and open caption. Open caption can not be disabled, as it is integrated and attached to the video, and it will shrink in size if the video file is compressed to a smaller shape or to another video file extension. While closed caption can be edited according to the needs of the audience. Open caption is listed in the video at the same time when the video is edited while closed caption can be installed after the video is finished processing and ready to be uploaded. The most obvious example of closed caption is the one installed on Youtube with the cc button you can chose (which is the abbreviation for closed caption). On other social media apps like Instagram and IGTV, closed caption is not provided so the video that is published on Instagram or IGTV must use closed caption.

On certain video players, to view closed caption you may needs an additional supporting player, like VLC player or GOM player. On Youtube, closed caption sometimes must be put as the setting preferred or one must not forget to turn on the cc button. On Television, closed caption needs a decoder that can read and display the text of the caption. This decoder is most often installed on the latest version of televisions such as smart Television (Smart-TV).

Installing closed caption on a video player must include how to activate the caption, whether it is through a television screen or other software. That is the reason why a lot of video viewers prefer open caption rather than closed caption. There is an assumption that open caption contains the universal design that carried the Human Rights general convention because it is beneficial not only for those who are hearing impaired (deaf), but also for foreign language audiences and people in a noisy area that does not allow a good projection of sound from the video. Unfortunately, the translation in open caption cannot be done in the same manner as closed caption. In addition to the extra features stored in open caption, there is also a flaw in its usage. Open caption is a direct part of the video, while closed caption is separate to the video format so it is more flexible to be used on various video players and does not shrink in size when the video is compressed.

With the advantages and disadvantages of the open and closed caption, it is important to evaluate the use of one’s video and how far an audience can understand it. For example, on a tutorial video aimed at those who are disabled or at a broad range of audiences or at a noisy conference, open caption might be more useful. However, this consideration must also be measured by how much the caption can be accessed when watched and edited when there is a mistake to be fixed. What is more important than the consideration outlined above is to consider the audience and the message that you want to convey from producing your specific video with either open or closed caption.

Ilustrasi mengenai caption pada video.

Caption di Video untuk Tuli

Penggunaan video sebagai medium pembelajaran memiliki banyak peran dewasa ini. Dengan satu klik pada tautan tertentu, pelajar atau mahasiswa dapat mengakses video langsung dari mana pun mereka berada. Sayangnya, seringkali video yang digunakan tidak disertai dengan caption, baik closed maupun open caption.

Kenyataan tersebut sama ironisnya dengan ketidaktaatan beberapa stasiun televisi yang tidak memenuhi ketentuan Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2002 tentang Penyiaran dan Undang-Undang Nomor 8 Tahun 2016 tentang Penyandang Disabilitas yang berkaitan dengan hak untuk memperoleh informasi augmentatif bagi semua orang. “Semua orang” dalam terma ini mengandaikan ketidakterbatasan segmen pemirsa yang menonton, termasuk Tuli, yang bukan Tuli, atau penyandang disabilitas sensorik lainnya dengan berbagai tingkatan. Jika bayangan pemirsa tersebut adalah pada semua segmen, maka menyediakan caption pada setiap video adalah hal yang niscaya.

Di ranah pendidikan, penggunaan video berkenaan langsung dengan penyampaian maateri pembelajaran. Sejak Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi pada Kementerian Riset, Teknologi dan Pendidikan Tinggi mencanangkan kampus inklusif bagi semua orang, keberadaan caption pada video sebagai medium pembelajaran atau persebaran informasi juga menjadi kewajiban. Meski dalam UU Nomor 8 Tahun 2016 tidak tertera secara langsung bahwa mahasiswa atau siswa Tuli harus disediai penerjemah Bahasa Isyarat di sekolah atau di kampus, namun poin pada undang-undang tersebut sudah mengatakan secara intrinsik.

Bilamana penerjemah Bahasa Isyarat tidak tersedia dalam video tersebut, maka caption dalam rupa teks harus menjelaskan isi pembicaraan yang berupa audio. Bahkan, efek suara bukan ujaran yang berkaitan dengan konteks yang tertera secara visual juga harus terjelaskan dalam caption, misalnya suara hembus angin pada video yang berisi materi pembelajaran tentang meteorologi dan geofisika. Sederhananya, apapun yang masih dalam bentuk suara sebisa mungkin ter-caption-kan dalam video.

Closed dan Open Caption

Caption adalah teks yang muncul di layar yang menjelaskan isi video dan juga berfungsi menggantikan peran suara untuk menyampaikan pesan. Caption juga bisa berupa penjelasan tentang identitas pembicara dan penjelasan mengenai suara yang memiliki relevansi dengan isi video. Caption tersinkronisasi dengan apa yang tampil secara visual di video, sehingga penonton dapat mendengarkan dan membaca caption sekaligus. Dengan demikian, penyandang disabilitas sensorik baik tunanetra maupun Tuli dapat mengakses video tersebut.

Ada dua macam caption, yaitu Closed Caption dan Open Caption. Open Caption tidak bisa dihidup-matikan, terintegrasi dan melekat pada video, dan akan ikut mengecil apabila file video dikompres ke bentuk yang lebih kecil atau ekstensi lain. Sedangkan Closed Caption dapat dihidup-matikan sesuai keperluan penonton. Open Caption dicantumkan di video bersamaan dengan ketika video tersebut diedit, sedangkan Closed Caption dapat dipasang setelah video selesai diproses dan siap ditayangkan. Contoh yang paling kentara pada Closed Caption adalah yang dipasang di YouTube pada pilihan CC (yang merupakan singkatan dari Closed Caption itu). Pada aplikasi media sosial lain semisal Instagram dan IGTV, Closed Caption tidak disediakan sehingga video yang diunggap di Instagram atau IGTV harus menggunakan Closed Caption.

Dari segi media pemutar video, Closed Caption membutuhkan pemutar yang mendukung, semisal VLC Player atau GOM Player. Di YouTube, Closed Caption kadang harus disetting terlebih dahulu. Sedangkan pada televisi, Closed Caption membutuhkan decoder yang dapat membaca dan menampilkan teks caption tersebut. Decoder ini kadang sudah terpasang pada televisi masa kini seperti pada televisi cerdas (smart-tv).

Memasang Closed Caption pada video harus menyertakan cara mengaktifkan caption tersebut, baik itu di televisi atau perangkat lunak lainnya. Itulah mengapa banyak pemirsa video yang lebih memilih Open Caption ketimbang Closed Caption. Open Caption mengasumsikan bahwa ia mengandung desain universal yang diusung Konvensi HAM secara umum, karena ia bermanfaat bukan hanya pada Tuli, tapi juga pada pemirsa asing dan orang di tempat yang riuh yang tidak memungkinkan untuk mendengar suara pada video. Sayangnya, penerjemahan pada Open Caption tidak dapat dilakukan sebagaimana pada Closed Caption. Selain keuntungan yang tersimpan dalam Open Caption, ada pula kekurangannya. Open Caption merupakan bagian dari video secara langsung, sedangkan Closed Caption terspisah dari video sehingga lebih fleksibel pada berbagai pemutar video dan tidak mengecil ketika video dikompres.

Dengan kelebihan dan kekurangan pada Open dan Closed Caption ini, penting bagi pemproduksi video untuk mengevaluasi penggunaan video tersebut dan sejauh mana ia dapat dipahami oleh pemirsa. Contohnya, pada sebuah video tutorial yang ditujukan pada penyandang disabilitas atau audiens secara luas atau pada pelaksaan konferensi yang bising, Open Caption mungkin lebih bermanfaat. Meski demikian, pertimbangan tersebut harus juga mengukur seberapa mungkin caption tersebut dapat diakses ketika ditonton dan disunting ketika ada kekeliruan. Yang lebih penting lagi dari pertimbangan-pertimbangan di atas adalah mempertimbangkan pemirsa dan ketersampaian pesan dari video tersebut.

It’s time for Indonesians to say goodbye to the ‘supercrip’

Asian Para Games athlete Maria Goreti Samiati. Photo by Mohammad Ayudha for Antara.

Life for people with disability in Indonesia is highly challenging. They face poor accessibility to public facilities, transportation, and buildings, weak social security support, and patronising public attitudes. One of the most common public perspectives is to view people with disabilities as somehow extraordinary or deserving of compliments.

This way of viewing people with disabilities as “supercrips” is pervasive in Indonesia. It is consistent with a view of disability that sees people with disability as “others”, different from the majority. According to this view, any artistic, academic or sporting products or achievements produced by people with disability are considered extraordinary and worthy of effusive praise.

This type of attitude can also result in people with disability being praised for just going about their daily lives. It is not uncommon to hear comments like: “Even though she is deaf, she can still take great photographs”, or “He uses a wheelchair but he got the top marks in the maths exam”.

During the 2018 Asian Para Games, for example, a stranger approached me and shook my hand, exclaiming, “You are awesome, I am amazed”. He had never met me before. All I had been doing was walking through the grounds of the event.

Academic Jan Grue notes(link is external) that the result of this view is that “the greater the achievement and the greater the impairment, the more impressive the supercrip.” Even if an artistic product has not been appraised or displayed alongside other artworks in a curated environment, as long as it is produced by a person with disability, it is considered to be an incredible or valuable work. Grue summarises this notion with the formula: (S)upercriphood = (A)chievement x (I)mpairment.

This notion of the “supercrip” interacts closely with perspectives that view people with disability as objects of charity. A charity perspective might see the government, with good intentions, providing opportunities for people with disability to participate in creating art. But often the end results are lauded without objective or professional judgment. Unlike other artworks, which are curated based on philosophical, technical or theoretical considerations, artworks of people with disability are often curated based on being produced by people with disability. Disability becomes the prominent focus, rather than the artwork.

This view is dominant in Indonesian society. I have visited many areas of Indonesia where people with disability are creating art but their works are simultaneously considered the result of “leisure activities”, rather than serious artistic endeavour, while also being considered worthy of high praise. Many government ceremonies are accompanied by dances, readings, or music performed by people with disability, which are then given excessive or exaggerated applause. They are judged according to their disabilities rather than the quality of their work. They are assumed to be incapable because of their disability, so the simple act of creating art is deemed worthy of praise.

Because of this perspective, it is not surprising that many non-disabled people see people with disability as objects of inspiration. The involvement of people with disability in art is primarily intended to give pleasure to the non-disabled people, resulting in excessive admiration and pity. This is what is known as “inspiration porn”.(link is external) Disability is presented for its ability to satisfy or provide pleasure to the non-disabled, not as something that is normal.

The same patterns are also observed in sport. While the 2018 Asian Para Games was a high profile opportunity to introduce and educate people about disability and diversity, in reality, people with disability were again treated as objects of pity or sources of inspiration for non-disabled people. National daily newspaper Kompas dedicated its front page to the Games, stating in bold font: “They Inspire Us”.

 

The front page of Kompas on 6 October 2018.

 

Similarly, in an official video, President Joko Widodo and Vice President Jusuf Kalla said that people with disability were an inspiration to Asian society. In fact, the tagline for the biggest sporting event in Asia was: “The Inspiring Spirit and Energy of Asia”, and the official Para Games social media accounts shared updates with the hashtag #parainspirasi.

Inspiration porn rests on an underlying assumption that people with disability are weak and not able to do what non-disabled people can do. When people with disability achieve sporting success, it’s surprising and impressive for non-disabled people. Viewing people with disability as an inspiration actually subordinates them and singles them out as “the other”.

The works and achievements of people with disabilities are not considered as objects or achievements in their own right but the result of the efforts of a person with disability. This puts the emphasis on the disability and results in excessive praise or people with disability being used to satisfy the inspirational needs of non-disabled people.

This is the great challenge for disability rights activists in Indonesia. It is time to do away with the idea of the supercrip. People with disability are not superhuman or sources of inspiration, they are just people and part of Indonesia’s diverse society. Everybody has their own different characteristics, whether they relate to religion, sexual orientation, race, language, or disability.

 

Author: Slamet Thohari, lecturer and researcher with the Center for Disability Studies and Services at Brawijaya University and the Indonesian Chair of AIDRAN

This article is originally published by Indonesia at Melbourne

 

 

People with disability: locked out of learning?

Indonesian students with disability are challenged by inadequate support and lack of accessible teaching and learning facilities. Photo by Tommy Kristiawan Permadi.
Indonesian students with disability are challenged by inadequate support and lack of accessible teaching and learning facilities. Photo by Tommy Kristiawan Permadi.

Indonesia has made good progress towards increasing enrolment in higher education but it still has a long way to go to improve equity – especially for people with disability. Stigma, physical barriers and a lack of supportive policies and academic services continue to keep most Indonesians with disability locked out of higher education. To have any hope of earning a degree they need support from families, the community and the government – and a huge amount of personal determination.

Zilfathanah Arranury, or Ifha, is a 25-year-old teacher at a special school in Gowa in South Sulawesi, and is deaf. Of the estimated 36,000 people with disability who live in Makassar, she is one of the very few with a bachelor’s degree. Although Ifha was able to attend university, she says she was reluctant to apply because she felt embarrassed about attending classes with non-disabled peers. It was her father, a lecturer at Alauddin State Islamic University (UIN) in Makassar, who convinced her to try. After two attempts at the entrance exam, she was accepted into Makassar State University (UNM), the first ever student from her special school to make it.

Ifha’s anxiety is common among people with disability. It is an unintended consequence of the segregated special school system introduced in 1967.  Most children with disabilities go to special schools for their primary and secondary education. Although the schools were created to provide an avenue to access education, the quality of these schools is often poor, and minimal efforts are made to prepare students to study alongside non-disabled students.

Some Indonesians with disability attend state high schools. Hamzah, a 32-year-old blind activist, also from Makassar, says he often had to put up with negative comments from teachers who complained about his performance in class but never offered additional support (extra tutorials, for example) or adapted materials or equipment to help him participate. While Hamzah was tolerated in the state school system, almost no efforts were made to ensure his experience was inclusive.

Despite a lack of encouragement from his teachers, Hamzah was adamant about pursuing higher education like his non-disabled peers, and dreamt of becoming a teacher at an Islamic school. But Hamzah’s enrolment was refused in 2003 by the education (tarbiyah) faculty at Alauddin UIN. He was told that a blind man could not become a teacher and the institute could not accommodate him. He was eventually accepted into the English literature department at UNM, which Ifha also attended.

Hamzah’s experience is far too common among people with disabilities. Until last year, the National Higher Education Entrance Exam (SNMPTN) excluded participants who were deaf, blind, physically disabled or colour-blind. Following a national outcry, this was changed. Yet students with disabilities remain challenged(link is external) by inadequate support and a lack of accessible teaching and learning facilities in Indonesian higher education.

Without help from the educational sector, family support becomes critical. It played a significant role in both Hamzah’s and Ifha’s transition to higher education. Other children are not so lucky. Although attitudes are improving, many Indonesian parents consider children with disability a burden on the family. Education is not seen as a pathway for their children to participate in employment or public life.

More than a decade ago, the Indonesian government included provisions on the need for education for people with special needs in Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education. It eventually ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2011 (through Law No. 19 of 2011). This obliges it to provide people with disability with access to education, employment and health care. It was not until the Ministry of Education and Culture published Regulation No. 46 of 2014, however, that requirements for accessible higher education were spelled out in greater detail.

 

UIN Sunan Kalijaga, in Yogyakarta, is a leader in inclusive education. Photo by the Centre for Disability Studies and Services
Sunan Kalijaga UIN, in Yogyakarta, is a leader in the provision of inclusive education in Indonesia. Photo by the Centre for Disability Studies and Services (PSLD), Sunan Kalijaga UIN.